Timeline of the French & Indian War
March 15, 1744-October 1748: King George’s War – Conflict over domination in North America ends with no clear victor with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1752-1753: Agitation grows – Tension grows between France and England over land and trading claims. Minor skirmishes break out.
Nov-December 1753: George Washington carries Virginia’s ultimatum over French encroachment to Captain Legardeau de Saint-Pierre at Riviere aux Boeufs. He rejects it.
May 1754: Washington defeats French in a surprise attack (the first battle) and builds Fort Necessity.
July 1754: The French take Fort Necessity
July 1754: Washington blamed for the loss of Fort Necessity, resigns. He will later return as a volunteer under British authority.
June 1755: The British seize Acadia (Nova Scotia).
July 1755: The Battle of the Wilderness – British General Braddock’s forces are defeated near Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania, leaving the backwoods of British Territory undefended.
July 1755: British Col. William Johnson arrives at the Great Carrying Place to build a fortified storehouse. Work was already underway led by Capt. Robert Rogers. Col. Phineas Lyman takes over to complete construction of Fort Lyman which would later become Fort Edward.
Aug. 1755: William Johnson arrives at Lac du Saint Sacrament and renames it Lake George. Begins work on a fortification to later be named Fort William Henry.
Sept 9, 1755: William Johnson’s forces are engaged in several battles that would collectively be named the Battle of Lake George. This would include the Bloody Morning Scout, an ambush that resulted in the death of British Col. Ephraim Williams and Mohawk King Hendrick. A later engagement would be called the Battle of Bloody Pond. Johnson’s forces win the day making him the first British hero of the war.
May 8-9, 1756: Declarations of War – War is officially declared between Great Britain and France.
August 14, 1756: Fort Oswego – The French capture this fort on the banks of the Great Lakes.
March 1757: St. Patrick’s Day attack on Fort William Henry ends with French defeat.
August 3-9, 1757 Fort William Henry. The commander-in-chief of the French forces, Louis-Joseph de Montcalm lays siege to Fort William Henry which Col. Monro finally surrenders. The infamous massacre occurs, later dramatized in James Fenimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans.
July 1758: General James Abercrombie and Lord Howe assemble a force of 16,000 men on the south shore of Lake George. On July 6th the force arrived at the north end of the Lake and proceeded to head towards Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga). They attacked the fort on July 8th taking a great number of casualties. The day ended in defeat for the British and a victory for Montcalm defending Carillon. Lord Howe was killed.
July 25, 1758 Louisbourg – The British seize Louisbourg opening the route to Canada.
August 27, 1758 The French surrender Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario, destroying their ability to communicate with their troops in the Ohio Valley.
October 21, 1758: British make peace with the Iroquois, Shawnee and Delaware Indians.
November 25, 1758: The British recapture Fort Duquesne, rename it Pittsburg.
May 1, 1759: The British capture the French Island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean.
June 25, 1759: British take Fort Ticonderoga
July 25, 1759,: British take Fort Niagara; French abandon Crown Point. British now control entire western frontier.
Sept 13, 1759: Quebec. British win Battle of Quebec. Montcalm and Wolfe, the commanding generals of both armies, die in battle.
May 16, 1760: French siege of Quebec fails.
Sept 8, 1760: Montreal falls to the British; letters are signed finishing the surrender of Canada.
Sept 15, 1760: Functional end of the war. British flag is raised over Detroit, effectively ending the war.
1761: British make peace with the Cherokee Indians.
Sept. 18, 1762: French attempt to retake Newfoundland fails.
Feb 10, 1763: Treaty of Paris – All French possessions east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans, are given to the British. All French possessions west of the Mississippi are given to the Spanish. France regains Martinique, Guadeloupe and St. Lucia.
The French & Indian War marked a turning point in history. The expense of the War caused Britain to raise taxes in the colonies leading to unrest and a resentment of the monarchy. Just 13 years after the Treaty of Paris, the colonies rose up against the King in the War for Independence, leading to the freedom of the colonies and the formation of the United States of America.